Center for Regulation Policy and Governance

Mohamad Mova Al’Afghani, SH, LL.M.Eur, PhD

Lecturer at the faculty of law UIKA Bogor, Regulatory Consultant and Director of the Center for Regulation, Policy and Governance (CRPG).


Expertise and Research Interest: regulation, water law, regulatory state, sharing economy, utilities regulation, transparency and good governance


Dr. Al’Afghani is a regulatory consultant and Director of the Center for Regulation, Policy and Governance (CRPG) based in Bogor, Indonesia. He earned his PhD in 2013 from the University of Dundee (UNESCO Center for Water Law, Policy and Science), his master’s degree (LL.M.Eur) from the University of Bremen in 2008 (with distinction) and his Sarjana Hukum (LL.B) from Universitas Indonesia in 2003.

Mova has a diverse and extensive career in water law, human rights, and environmental governance. As an expert consultant for UNDP, he has drafted frameworks for environmental and human rights due diligence on water pollution and formulated industry training curricula. He has also served as a monitoring and evaluation consultant for international institutions, developing country-specific case studies for assessing contributions and change factors. As the Founding Director of the Center for Regulation, Policy and Governance (CRPG), Mova has led numerous research projects, managed CRPG, and developed business partnerships. His most recent role includes leading the regulatory component for CRPG’s KONEKSI research project on climate-resilient community-based rural water supply. Additionally, Mova has consulted for various international organizations, including FAO Asia Pacific, the World Bank, WHO, UNIDO, and RWI, focusing on water security, drinking water quality regulation, and PCB management plans. He has also taught as a lecturer and guest lecturer at several institutions and held earlier roles as an intern at the Max Planck Institute and associate lawyer at several law firms. As a consultant for the International Budget Partnership, he reviews WASH and solid waste services and analyzes budget credibility and political economy in Indonesia. Mova is a member of the FAO Water Tenure Expert Group and an affiliate of the International Water Law Academy at the University of Wuhan, China.

Mova’s detailed CV can be accessed in this link.


Google Scholar Citations (click here)


Legal Frameworks for Transparency in Water Utilities Regulation: A Comparative Perspective, Routledge/Taylor-Francis, 2016  

Peer Reviewed Journals and Edited Books

  1. Sarah Dickin and others, ‘Assessing Mutual Accountability to Strengthen National WASH Systems and Achieve the SDG Targets for Water and Sanitation’ [2022] H2Open Journal. (Paper)
  2. Al’Afghani, MM, Memperbaiki Arah Reformasi Regulasi di Indonesia (Improving the Direction of Indonesia’s Regulatory Reform), Implementasi Penguatan Regulasi dan Hukum di Indonesia (ed), UIKA Press, 2021
  3. Al’afghani, MM, Bisariyadi B, Konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko: Telaah Kritis dalam Penerapannya pada Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja. (Risk Based Regulation : Critique To Its Adoption in the Job Creation Law), Jurnal Konstitusi, Vol 18 Nomor 1, Maret, 2021
  4. J Willetts, F Mills, M Al’Afghani. Sustaining community-scale sanitation services: Comanagement by local government and low-income communities in Indonesia. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 2020
  5. Al’Afghani, MM. Alienating the Private Sector: Implications of the Invalidation of the Water Law by the Indonesian Constitutional Court, Journal of Water Law 26/3
  6. Al’Afghani, M.M. Kohlitz, J. and Willetts, J. 2019. Not built to last: Improving legal and institutional arrangements for community-based water and sanitation service delivery in Indonesia. Water Alternatives 12(1): 285-303
  7. Al’Afghani, MM, Paramita, D, Regulatory Challenges in the Phasing-Out of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Indonesia, International Chemical Regulatory and Law Review 1 (1), 12-27
  8. Al’Afghani, MM. Anti-Privatisation Debates, Opaque Rules and ‘Privatised’ Water Services Provision: Some Lessons from Indonesia’ in Alan Nicol, Lyla Mehta and Allouche J (eds), IDS Bulettin: ‘Some for All?’ Politics and Pathways in Water and Sanitation, vol 43.2 (Institute of Development Studies and Wiley-Blackwell 2012)
  9. Al’Afghani, MM. The transparency agenda in water utilities regulation and the role of freedom of information: England and Jakarta case studies, The Journal of Water Law, Special Issue, Vol.20 Issues 2/3, 2010
  10. Al’Afghani, MM. Religious Freedom in Indonesia before and after Constitutional Amendments (April 10, 2010). CRITICAL THINKERS FOR ISLAMIC REFORM, Brainbow Press, 2009. Available at SSRN:
  11. Al’Afghani, MM. Safeguarding Water Contracts in Indonesia 3/2 Law, Environment and Development Journal (2007), p. 148, available at
  12. Al’Afghani, MM. Constitutional Court’s Review and the Future of Water Law in Indonesia, 2/1 Law, Environment and Development Journal, 2006. The paper is available at
  13. Al’Afghani,MM. Kampanye Melawan Terorisme telah Merusak Tatanan Hukum. (Campaign Against Terrorism has Disrupted the Legal Order) Published in Jurnal Teropong MAPPI (Masyarakat Pemantau Peradilan Indonesia, November, 2002). Available on


  1. Al’Afghani, MM, Water Tenure in Indonesia, FAO, 2022
  2. Abed Khalil and others, ‘Indonesia Vision 2045: Toward Water Security (Policy Note)’ (World Bank 2021) Policy Note < > accessed 19 January 2022.
  3. Al’Afghani, MM dan Bisariyadi B, Konsep Regulasi Berbasis Risiko: Telaah Kritis dalam Penerapannya pada Undang-Undang Cipta Kerja (Risk-Based Regulation: A Critical Review on Its Implementation in the Omnibus Law on Jobs Creation)
  4. Al’Afghani, M.M. and Qowamuna, N.A. Regulasi dan Kebijakan Terkait dengan Penyediaan Air Minum bagi Masyarakat B40 di Perkotaan, Laporan Penelitian untuk PSKK-UGM dan IUWASH, 2021. (Regulation and Policy Concerning The Provision of Drinking Water for Urban B40 Communities, Research Report for PSKK-UGM and IUWASH, 2021)
  5. Cunningham, R., Al’Afghani, M.M., Qowamuna, N.A., Winterford, K., Willetts, J. (2020) Sanitation and Water for All (SWA): Mapping WASH actors in Indonesia using Social Network Analysis, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
  6. Qowamuna N, Al’Afghani MM, Willetts, J, Winterford, K, Strengthening mutual accountability and partnerships for WASH, Country brief, Indonesia, SWA, CRPG and ISFUTS, 2021
  7. Geall, S, Al’Afghani, MM, The right to safe water in Southeast Asia, Raoul Wallenberg Institute, 2020–asia/?wpdmdl=18063
  8. Soeters, S, Al’Afghani, MM, Avessina, J and Willets, J, Supporting Sustainable Rural Water Service Delivery: District Association of Community-Based Organizations in Indonesia. Enterprise in WASH – Research Report 10, ISF-UTS, 2018
  9. Avessina, MJ, AlAfghani, MM, Anggraini, N, Maulana, M, Tata Kelola Sanitasi di Empat Kabupaten (Sanitation Governance in Four Regencies), CRPG and SNV Netherlands, Agustus 2018
  10. Al’Áfghani, MM, Prayitno, DE, Mills, F, Willets, J, Increasing local government responsibility for communal scale sanitation; Part 2: Using Regional Budget (APBD) to support post-construction sustainability of communal sanitation, Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, December, 2016
  11. Mills, F, Willets, J, AlÁfghani, MM, Increasing local government responsibility for communal scale sanitation; Part 1, Review of national program guidelines and two city case studies. Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, December, 2016
  12. AlAfghani, MM, Widiyatmoko, P, Crow, C. Indonesia: End of Term Report, Independent Reporting Mechanism, Open Government Partnership, 2017
  13. Al’Afghani, MM, Paramita D, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Phasing-Out Regulation in Indonesia: Final Report. United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Republic of Indonesia, 2016
  14. Al’Afghani, MM, Paramita D, Avessina MJ, Muhajir, MA, Heriati, F. The Role of Regulatory Frameworks for Ensuring the Sustainability of Community Based Water and Sanitation, Australia Indonesia Infrastructure Research Project, Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative, 2016
  15. Al’Afghani, MM, Paramita, D, Mitchell, C, Ross, K 2015. Review of Regulatory Framework for Local Scale “Air Limbah”. Prepared by the Center for Regulation, Policy and Governance, Universitas Ibn Khaldun Bogor and Institute for Sustainable Futures, UTS under ADRAS Scheme.
  16. AlÁfghani, MM, and Widiyatmoko, P. Indonesia: Third Progress Report, Independent Reporting Mechanism, Open Government Partnership, 2017.
  17. Al’Áfghani, MM, Independent Reporting Mechanism: Indonesia Special Accountability Report. Open Government Partnership 2014
  18. Al’Afghani, MM. Review of Regulation of Jakarta Water Services, Jakarta Water Sector Regulatory Body, 2014.
  19. Saragih, AA, Al’afghani, MM, Yasin, M, Transparansi Perizinan Dalam Sektor Pertambangan dan Perkebunan. Unit Kerja Presiden Bidang Pengawasan dan Pengendalian Pembangunan – UKP4, 2014
  20. AlAfghani, MM, Feasibility Study of Right to Water and Sanitation Pilot Project in Indonesia, Both Ends, August 2009 (Submitted to the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs)
  21. AlAfghani, MM. Transparency in DKI Jakarta’s Drinking Water Utilities Regulatory Bodies, ECOTAS and Tifa Foundation, August, 2011)
  22. Contribution to Global Water Partnership Integrated Water Resources Management Toolbox C6.03: Water Services, Global Water Partnership, 2011
  23. AlAfghani, Review of Community-Based Water and Sanitation Draft Regional By Law for the Sikka Regency, East Nusa Tenggara, in cooperation with Dropbydrop, Watsan Working Group of NTT Province and UNICEF.

Selected Op-eds

  1. Why wealthy countries and companies need to do more to clean up global toxic chemical pollution, The Conversation, April 21, 2022 (with Dyah Paramita)
  2. Can the court’s concern over water privatization be justified? (Part 2 of 2), The Jakarta Post, Tue, March 10, 2015
  3. Court decision brings water governance reforms to a halt (Part 1 of 2), The Jakarta Post, Mon, March 09, 2015
  4. Toward Community Water Supply, The Jakarta Post, Fri, 03/22/2013 11:22 AM
  5. The Elements of “State Control”, The Jakarta Post, Mon, 01/14/2013
  6. The new governor and Jakarta’s drinking water problem, October, 20, 2012
  7. Incoherence in the debate over ‘privatization’, The Jakarta Post, July,22, 2012; Republished by the New Straits Times and The Malaysian Insider
  8. Authority in Water Resources Conservation, The Jakarta Post, June 30, 2012
  9. When It Comes to Water Services, Jakarta Is Living in the Distant Past, The Jakarta Globe, October 16, 2011
  10. RI’s Water Services Suffering from a lack of Governance, The Jakarta Post, March 30, 2010
  11. Indonesia Needs a Strong Water Services Law, The Jakarta Post, August 31, 2009
  12. Can Public Service Law be Applied to Private Sector?, The Jakarta Post, July 14, 2009
  13. The Need for Clarification on HP-3 Rights, The Jakarta Post, May 14th, 2009
  14. Water Services Transparency, The Jakarta Post, March 20, 2009
  15. Coastal Management Law Review, The Jakarta Post, April 15th , 2008
  16. Ultimate Risks of Water Privatizations, The Jakarta Post, May 17th, 2007
  17. Access to water is a fundamental human rights, The Jakarta Post, July 10th 2007
  18. Nanotechnology requires legal umbrella, The Jakarta Post, January 20th 2006, republished by IP Frontline Magazine,
  19. Prophet Muhammad Cartoons and Freedom of Expression, The Jakarta Post, February 18th, 2006
  20. Developing Countries Must be Ready for Nanotechnology, The Jakarta Post, February 27th, 2006
  21. Lebanon Crisis and Unrestricted Warfare, The Jakarta Post, August 04th 2006
  22. The Fourth Generation of Human Rights, The Jakarta Post, September, 04th 2006
  23. Is Technology turning privacy into an endangered species?, The Jakarta Post, October 20th, 2006
  24. Extradition Treaty Must Exclude Terrorism (with Bambang Widjojanto), The Jakarta Post, March 14th , 2005
  25. Limited Implementation of Sharia in Aceh, The Jakarta Post, July 11th 2005
  26. Indonesian Copyright Law not copyleft-friendly, The Jakarta Post, May 27th 2005
  27. Indonesia Needs to Support Access to Knowledge Treaty, The Jakarta Post, June 18th 2005, Republished by IP Frontline Magazine,
  28. Hyperegulated Society and Its Discontents, The Jakarta Post, June 28th 2005
  29. IP Strategy for Developing Nations, The Jakarta Post, December 24th , 2005
  30. Labor Strike Procedure in Indonesia, Legal Brief,
  31. Can a State Imply Censorship towards the Internet? Center for Law Information (CeLI),
  32. The Spread of ‘Preemptivism’ and Indonesia’s Sovereignty, The Jakarta Post October 7th, 2004, republished in the Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University,

Selected Workshops/Conference Papers

  1. “Promoting Water Tenure for Food Security, Climate Resilience and Equity, Food and Agricultural Organization, Berlin, 28-29 June, 2022; delivering a presentation titled “Peatland and Water Tenure in Indonesia” See
  2. Expert consultation with the UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights to Water regarding rural water supply, 21-25 April, 2022
  3. Al’Afghani, MM (Presenting) and Qowamuna, N, Improving Indonesia’s Job’s Creation Law’s Risk Based Framework Through Systematic Data Collection and Algorithm, Law and Society Association Annual Meeting, 2021, May 26-30, 2021
  4. Regional Research Initiative on Human Rights, Bangkok, Thailand, 26-30 March 2018 and Jakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 September 2018, organized by the Raoul Wallenberg Institute, presenting a paper titled: “Human Rights Implications of Community-Based Water and Sanitation in Indonesia”
  5. Open Government Partnership Asia Pacific Regional Meeting, South Korea, delivering a presentation titled “Delivering More Meaningful Water Commitment” in the session titled “Stepping Stones to Achieving Innovative Public Service Delivery Commitments in Asia: Health, Education, and Water”, Seoul, November 6, 2018
  6. 38th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants & 10 International PCB Workshop, 26-31 August, 2018, Krakow, Poland, delivering presentation: “Regulatory Challenges in the Phasing Out of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Indonesia”.
  7. Open Government Global Summit, Tbilisi, Georgia, July 17-19, 2018, speaking at the session “Communities, Inequality, and Water: Who Receives Water, When, and at What Price – Can Open Government Make a Difference?”
  8. Open Government Global Summit, Mexico, October 26-29, Mexico City, Mexico. Delivering Indonesia’s Open Government Partnership IRM Report 2015
  9. The State Retreats and Never Returns: Consequences of Neoliberal Reforms on Administrative Law Protection in Indonesia; Putting Public in Public Services: Research, Action and Equity in the Global South International Conference – Cape Town, South Africa April 13-16, 2014; Available at SSRN:
  10. Expert Meeting on Freedom of Expression, Freedom of Information and The Right to Water, Article 19, London, February 19-22, 2014. Advised Article 19 on drafting “The Free Flow Principles: Freedom of Expression and Rights to Water and Sanitation”.
  11. Member and Team Leader of the Indonesian Team to the 2nd Temasek Foundation Water Leadership Program (TFWLP Fellowship), held by the Institute of Water Policy at the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Singapore, April 23 – May 4th, 2012
  12. Anti privatization debate, opaque rules and neglected ‘privatised’ water services provision: some lessons from Indonesia, STEPS II Conference Liquid Dynamics Background Paper, IDS, Sussex, March 22-23 2011, Sussex, UK. Available at SSRN:
  13. World Water Week Seminar: ‘Human Rights Based Approach to Improving Water Quality; organized by BothEnds, UNESCO Etxea, UNDP, Swedish Water House, delivering a presentation with the topic “The Potential Role of the Human Right to Water in the Management of Indonesia’s Water Resources” , Stockholm, September 09, 2010, paper available at
  14. Expert Consultation on the Human Right Aspect of Private Sector Participation on Water and Sanitation under the invitation of the UN Independent Expert on the Right to Water and Sanitation and Friedriech Ebert Stiftung; Geneva, 25-27 January 2010
  15. Anticipating Water Market, SURED-GAWN workshop on sustainable land and water management, Jakarta, April 2008.
  16. Safeguarding Water Contracts in Indonesia, Workshop on the “Legal Aspects of Water Sector Reform”, organised by the International Environmental Law Research Center (IELRC), Geneva, 20-21st of April 2007. Proceedings available at

Working Papers:

  1. Perjanjian Badan Publik Dengan Pihak Ketiga: Anotasi Pasal 11 ayat (1) (e) Undang Undang Nomor 14 Tahun 2008,
  2. Opportunities and Challenges in Integrating Community-Based Water Services into the Legal Framework: An Indonesia Case Study, Available at SSRN:
  3. Does Regulation by Contract Decreases Transparency? – Evidence from Jakarta’s Water Services Sector (July 22, 2012). Available at SSRN: or
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